• EXAM REVIEW / Bring to class major questions you have about anything that is unclear to you from the semester.
  • Revisiting Victor Davis Hanson’s chapter on the Battle of Salamis (what are this main arguments?) and contemplating the repercussions of the Athenian victory in 480-479 BC might help you tie up the Persian War.





Listening to this might help a great deal in understanding the Persians and the Persian Wars:


Too Many People, Too Few Resources

Save the Planet: Empty Half the Earth

Phoenix: How can the Least-Sustainable City Survive?

Cities Alone Can’t Fix What’s Wrong with American Government

Top Cities Running Out of Water

Here Come Mega-cities



Footnotes and Xenophon

In class we talked about how footnotes function in historical writing. They direct your reader to the source of your ideas. You have, of course, seen footnotes or endnotes in many of the readings — look at the end of each chapter of the textbook. If as a writer I wish to point out that, for example, some ancients thought that Lycurgus helped establish the first Olympics, I might add the following note: Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus, Robert Shurmer, ed. Cities and Civilizations, 305.  This tells your reader that my idea about Lycurgus and the Olympics came from my reading of the ancient text Life of Lycurgus which I found in the book by Shurmer.

Here’s a more complete guide to the proper writing of footnotes: Chicago Manuel of Style.


Read Xenophon’s ‘Spartan Constitution’ AND write out (or type) the following on a separate piece of paper:

  1. explain what the author’s purpose was in writing,
  2. provide TWO instances from the text that support your main idea
  3. FOOTNOTE the text by page [this can be done by writing ‘Xenophon, 344’ for example]

Videos: Greeks

What is the Iliad about?