Homework until Thanksgiving

To clarify: Battle of Megiddo, 1457 / Battle of  Kadesh, 1274

  • Mon 13: Read ‘How to tell a True War Story’ (p.285) AND turn in Assignment#7: True War Story
  • Tues 14: You should have your research completed  from the first Cities Project handout. These means you should have answers to the questions written on some NoodleTools cards or an opened Doc in NoodleTools.
  • Wed: read Intro to the Iliad (chapter 13?)
  • Thurs
  • Fri: read Life of Lycurgus , paragraphs 1 to 25. While reading, please make a written list of the major reforms implemented by Lycurgus AND write down the reason for the reform (i.e. what condition in Sparta made initiate the reform?)
  • Mon: Period 2 –> finish reading Life of Lycurgus / have reform list and reasons in class
  • Tues: Period 4 –> finish reading Life of Lycurgus / have reform list and reasons in class



CITIES PROJECT UPDATE: The following cities have been claimed.

  • Byzantium (Sonneborn)
  • Alexandria (Gregorian)
  • Epidarus (Lach)
  • Great Zimbabwe (Koch)
  • Thebes (Child)
  • Susa (Howe)
  • Persepolis (Misiaszek)
  • Xi’an (Rhee)
  • Petra (Hackett)
  • Madurai (Leiter)
  • Nicomedia (O’Rourke)
  • Ayodhya (Harreld)
  • Marseille (Chen)
  • Tyre (Dereje)
  • Pavia (Corinth)
  • Syracuse (Duncan)
  • Cagliari (Griffen)
  • Miletus (Namian)
  • Anyang (D’Amato)
  • Corcyra (Ball)
  • Edinburgh (Siegel)
  • Kush? (Abebe)
  • Memphis (Ford)
  • Ephesus (Akhavan)
  • Epidarus (Lach)
  • Miletus (Namian)

CLICK HERE for access to the Library Cities Project Homepage





Building Pharaoh’s Chariot

Gilgamesh Cartoon

ASSIGNMENT:   Create a 3 panel cartoon strip that captures a section of Gilgamesh that you consider important. Your panels must include:

  1. AT LEAST THREE direct quotations from the text. These can be used as dialogue (i.e. from the mouth of the characters) or as narration (accompanying a panel).
  2. Label at least one place in your panels. The place-name should come directly from the text.

You have part of the text in your reader. Below is the second part that I read to you in class:

You, men of Uruk. I want to make myself more mighty, and will go on a distant(!) journey!
I will face fighting such as I have never known, I will set out on a road I have never traveled!
Give me your blessings! …

Enkidu spoke to the Elders: “Men of Uruk…Say to him that he must not go to the Cedar Forest– the journey is not to be made! Humbaba, The Guardian of the Cedar Forest, ) is a terror to human beings.

The Noble Counselors of Uruk arose and delivered their advice to Gilgamesh:
“You are young, Gilgamesh, your heart carries you off you do not know what you are talking about!
Humbaba’s roar is a Flood, his mouth is Fire, his breath Death!
He can hear any rustling(!) in his forest 100 leagues away!
Who would go down into his forest!
Who among (even!) the Igigi gods can confront him?
In order to keep the Cedar safe, Enlil assigned him as a terror to human beings.”
Gilgamesh listened to the statement of his Noble Counselors.

{Gilgamesh and Enkidu set off on their quest to kill Humbaba}

The white clouds darkened, death rained down on them like fog.Shamash raised up against Humbaba mighty tempests’– Southwind, Northwind, Eastwind, Westwind, Whistling Wind, Piercing Wind, Blizzard, Bad Wind, Wind of Simurru,Demon Wind, Ice Wind, Storm, Sandstorm–thirteen winds rose up against him and covered Humbaba’s face.He could not butt through the front, and could not scramble out the back,so that Gilgamesh’a weapons were in reach of Humbaba. Humbaba begged for his life, saying to Gilgamesh:”You are young yet, Gilgamesh. (It was) at the word of Shamash, Lord of the Mountain, that you were roused (to this expedition). O heir of the heart of Uruk, King Gilgamesh!Gilgamesh, let me go (?), I will dwell with you as your servant (?) As many trees as you command me I will cut down for you, I will guard for you myrtle wood…, wood fine enough for your palace!” Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying: “My friend, do not listen to Humbaba, [io lines are misring Apparently Humbaba sees that Gilgamrsh is influenced by Enkidu, and moves to dissuade Enkidu.]”You understand the rules of my forest, further, you are aware of all the things so ordered (by Enlil).”I should have carried you up, and killed you at the very entrance to the branches of my forest.I should have fed your flesh to the screeching vulture, the eagle, and the vulture.So now, Enkidu, clemency is up to you. Speak to Gilgamesh to spare my life!” Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying: My friend, Humbaba, Guardian of the Cedar Forest,grind up, kill, pulverize(?), and destroy him!Before the Preeminent God Enlil hears… and the …gods be filled with rage against us.Enlil is in Nippur, Shamash is in Sippar. Erect an eternal monument proclaiming how Gilgamesh killed(?) Humbaba.”

… [they cut down the Cedar forest]

Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying:”My friend, we have cut down the towering Cedar whose top scrapes the sky. Make from it a door 72 cubits high, 24 cubits wide, one cubit thick, its fixture, its lower and upper pivots will be out of one piece.Let them carry it to Nippur, the Euphrates will carry it down, Nippur will rejoice….”They tied together a raft… Enkidu steered it… while Gilgamesh held the head of Humbaba.—- When Ishtar heard this, in a fury she went up to the heavens, going to Anu, her father, and crying and weeping:”Father, Gilgamesh has insulted me over and over, Gilgamesh has told despicable deeds about me,despicable deeds and curses!” Anu addressed Princess Ishtar, saying: “What is the matter?Was it not you who provoked King Gilgamesh? So Gilgamesh told despicable deeds about you,despicable deeds and curses!”Ishtar spoke to her father, Anu, saying: “Father, give me the Bull of Heaven, so he can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling. If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven, I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down, and will let the dead go up to eat the living!And the dead will outnumber the living!” Anu addressed princess Ishtar, saying:”If you demand the Bull of Heaven from me, there will be seven years of empty husks for the land of Uruk. Have you collected grain for the people! Have you made grasses grow for the animals?”Ishtar addressed Anu, her father, saying:”I have heaped grain in the granaries for the people,I made grasses grow for the animals,in order that they might eat in the seven years of empty husks.I have collected grain for the people, I have made grasses grow for the animals.” When Anu heard her words, he placed the nose-rope of the Bull of Heaven in her hand. Ishtar led the Bull of Heaven down to the earth. When it reached Uruk It climbed down to the Euphrates… At the snort of the Bull of Heaven a huge pit opened up, and 100 Young Men of Uruk fell in.  At his second snort a huge pit opened up, and 200 Young Men of Uruk fell in. At his third snort a huge pit opened up, and Enkidu fell in up to his waist.Then Enkidu jumped out and seized the Bull of Heaven by its horns, the Bull spewed his spittle in front of him, with his thick tail he flung his dung behind him (?).Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying: “My friend, we can be bold(?) …How shall we respond…. between the nape, the horns,… thrust your sword.” Enkidu stalked and hunted down the Bull of Heaven. He grasped it by the thick of its tailand held onto it with both his hands (?), while Gilgamesh, like an expert butcher,boldly and surely approached the Bull of Heaven. Between the nape, the horns, and… he thrust his sword.After they had killed the Bull of Heaven, they ripped out its heart and presented it to Shamash.Then the brothers sat down together.Ishtar went up onto the top of the Wall of Uruk-Haven,cast herself into the pose of mourning, and hurled her woeful curse:”Woe unto Gilgamesh who slandered me and killed the Bull ofHeaven!”When Enkidu heard this pronouncement of Ishtar, he wrenched off the Bull’s hindquarter and flung it in her face: “If I could only get at you I would do the same to you!I would drape his innards over your arms!” Tablet VII”My friend, why are the Great Gods in conference? Anu, Enlil, and Shamash held a council, and Anu spoke to Enlil: ‘Because they killed the Bull of Heaven and have also slainHumbaba, the one of them who pulled up the Cedar of the Mountain must die!’Enlil said:’Let Enkidu die, but Gilgamesh must not die!’ But the Sun God of Heaven replied to valiant Enlil:’Was it not at my command that they killed the Bull of Heaven and Humbaba!Should now innocent Enkidu die!’Then Enlil became angry at Shamash, saying:’it is you who are responsible  because you traveled daily with them as their friend!”‘…. Gilgamesh addressed his friend, saying: “Enkidu, your mother, the gazelle, and your father, the wild donkey, engendered you, four wild lionesses raised you on their milk, and the herds taught you all the grazing lands.   May the Roads of Enkidu to the Cedar Forest mourn you   and not fall silent night or day.   May the Elders of the broad city of Uruk-Haven mourn you.   May the peoples who gave their blessing after us mourn you.   May the men of the mountains and hills mourn you.[Enkidu dies] Over his friend, Enkidu, Gilgamesh cried bitterly, roaming the wilderness.   “I am going to die!–am I not like Enkidu?!  Deep sadness penetrates my core,  I fear death, and now roam the wilderness– I will set out to the region of Utanapishtim IMPORTANT SECTION – READ HERE Tablet XI  Gilgamesh spoke to Utanapishtim, the Faraway:   “I have been looking at you,   but your appearance is not strange–you are like me!  You yourself are not different–you are like me!   My mind was resolved to fight with you, (but instead) my arm lies useless over you.   Tell me, how is it that you stand in the Assembly of the Gods, and have found life!”Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:   “I will reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a thing that is hidden,   a secret of the gods I will tell you!   Shuruppak, a city that you surely know, situated on the banks of the Euphrates, that city was very old, and there were gods inside it.    The hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the Flood. Their Father Anu uttered the oath (of secrecy). Valiant Enlil was their Adviser, Enki, the Clever Prince(?), was under oath with them so he repeated their talk to the reed house: ‘Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall! O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu:  Tear down the house and build a boat!  Abandon wealth and seek living beings!   Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings!  Make all living beings go up into the boat. The boat which you are to build,  its dimensions must measure equal to each other: its length must correspond to its width.  Roof it over like the Apsu, I understood and spoke to my lord, Enki:  ‘My lord, thus is the command which you have uttered. I will heed and will do it.  But what shall I tell the city, the populace, and the Elders!’ Enki spoke, commanding me, his servant:  ‘You, well then, this is what you must say to them: “It appears that Enlil is rejecting me so I cannot reside in your city (?), nor set foot on Enlil’s earth.   I will go down to the Apsu to live with my lord, Enki,  and upon you he will rain down abundance,   a profusion of fowl, myriad(!) fishes. He will bring to you a harvest of wealth. In the morning he will let loaves of bread shower down,  and in the evening a rain of wheat!”‘ Just as dawn began to glow the land assembled around me-On the fifth day I laid out her exterior. inside of it I divided into nine (compartments).I butchered oxen for the meat(!), and day upon day I slaughtered sheep.I gave the workmen(?) ale, beer, oil, and wine, as if it were  river water, so they could make a party like the New Year’s Festival.The boat was finished by sunset. The launching was very difficult.Whatever I had I loaded on it: whatever silver I had I loaded on it, whatever gold I had I loaded on it.All the living beings that I had I loaded on it, I had all my kith and kin go up into the boat,all the beasts and animals of the field and the craftsmen I had go up.Shamash had set a stated time: I went into the boat and sealed the entry. Just as dawn began to glow there arose from the horizon a black cloud.Adad rumbled inside of it, before him went Shullat and Hanish, heralds going over mountain and land.Erragal pulled out the mooring poles, forth went Ninurta and made the dikes overflow.The Anunnaki lifted up the torches, setting the land ablaze with their flare.Stunned shock over Adad’s deeds overtook the heavens, and turned to blackness all that had been light.The land shattered like a pot.All day long the South Wind blew …, blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water,overwhelming the people like an attack.No one could see his fellow, they could not recognize each other in the torrent.The gods were frightened by the Flood, and retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu.The gods were cowering like dogs, crouching by the outer wall. Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth, the sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods wailed: ‘The olden days have alas turned to clay, because I said evil things in the Assembly of the Gods! How could I say evil things in the Assembly of the Gods, ordering a catastrophe to destroy my people!! No sooner have I given birth to my dear people  than they fill the sea like so many fish!’The gods–those of the Anunnaki–were weeping with her, Six days and seven nightscame the wind and flood, the storm flattening the land. When the seventh day arrived, The sea calmed, fell still, the whirlwind (and the) flood stopped up.I looked around all day long–quiet had set in and all the human beings had turned to clay!The terrain was as flat as a roof. I opened a vent and fresh air (daylight!) fell upon the side of my nose.I fell to my knees and sat weeping, tears streaming down the side of my nose.I looked around for coastlines in the expanse of the sea, and at twelve leagues there emerged a region (of land).When a seventh day arrived I sent forth a dove and released it.The dove went off, but came back to me; no perch was visible so it circled back to me.I sent forth a swallow and released it. The swallow went off, but came back to me; no perch was visible so it circled back to me.I sent forth a raven and released it. The raven went off, and saw the waters slither back.It eats, it scratches, it bobs, but does not circle back to me.Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed(a sheep).I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat.The gods smelled the savor, the gods smelled the sweet savor, and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice. The gods may come to the incense offering, but Enlil may not come to the incense offering, because without considering he brought about the Flood and consigned my people to annihilation.’Just then Enlil arrived.He saw the boat and became furious, he was filled with rage at the Igigi gods: ‘Where did a living being escape?Enlil went up inside the boat and, grasping my hand, made me go up.He had my wife go up and kneel by my side.He touched our forehead and, standing between us, he blessed us: ‘Previously Utanapishtim was a human being. But now let Utanapishtim and his wife become like us, the gods! Let Utanapishtim reside far away, at the Mouth of the Rivers.’They took us far away and settled us at the Mouth of the Rivers.” [Utanapishtim sends Gilgamesh away] Utanapishtim said to Urshanabi, the ferryman:    “May the harbor reject you, may the ferry landing reject you!    May you who used to walk its shores be denied its shores! The man in front of whom you walk, matted hair chains his body, animal skins have ruined his beautiful skin.    Take him away, Urshanabi, bring him to the washing place.  Let him wash his matted hair in water.    Let him cast away his animal skin and have the sea carry it off, let his body be moistened with fine oil,    let the wrap around his head be made new, let him wear royal robes worthy of him!    Until he goes off to his city, until he sets off on his way,    let his royal robe not become spotted, let it be perfectly new!” Gilgamesh and Urshanabi boarded the boat, they cast off the boat, and sailed away. The wife of Utanapishtim the Faraway said to him:    “Gilgamesh came here exhausted and worn out. What can you give him so that he can return to his land (with honor) !” Then Gilgamesh raised a punting pole and drew the boat to shore. Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: “Gilgamesh, you came here exhausted and worn out.    What can I give you so you can return to your land? I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh, … I will tell you.    There is a plant… like a boxthorn, whose thorns will prick your hand like a rose.    If your hands reach that plant you will become a young man again.”Hearing this, Gilgamesh opened a conduit(!) (to the Apsu) and attached heavy stones to his feet. They dragged him down, to the Apsu they pulled him. He took the plant, though it pricked his hand, and cut the heavy stones from his feet,letting the waves(?) throw him onto its shores. Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman, saying:   “Urshanabi, this plant is a plant against decay(!)   by which a man can attain his survival(!).    I will bring it to Uruk-Haven, and have an old man eat the plant to test it.    The plant’s name is ‘The Old Man Becomes a Young Man.'”   Then I will eat it and return to the condition of my youth.”At twenty leagues they broke for some food, at thirty leagues they stopped for the night.Seeing a spring and how cool its waters were, Gilgamesh went down and was bathing in the water.A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant, silently came up and carried off the plant.While going back it sloughed off its casing.’ At that point Gilgamesh sat down, weeping,his tears streaming over the side of his nose.